Loach - a fish belonging to the salmon family, but different from its counterparts is characterized by small scales. If you take the loach in your hands, it seems that he is naked, without scales, so he got that name.
In the Magadan and Kamchatka regions there are about 10 varieties of char, which differ in color, and this difference is most noticeable in the mating season. These fish spawn for their lives several times. After spawning, some of the fish die.
There are char, which spend the winter in fresh water, and feeding takes place in the sea, but there are varieties that do not leave rivers and lakes throughout life. Some species are highly adaptable to a variety of living conditions; they can live in rivers, lakes, and even in small streams. Such species, for example, include kunja and malma. And certain species live only in lakes, for example, pale, they even spawn in stagnant water.Loach (Salvelinus).
The body shape of the loach is elongated, cylindrical, and the head is slightly flattened from above. The fins are large, the scales are absent.
The mouth is located below the muzzle, while the lips are clearly defined. The body color of the char is dark - gray-brown, and unexpressed spots are scattered throughout the body. Since there are a large number of subspecies, these fish are quite well distributed and have a wide habitat.
Char habitat and abundance
These fish adhere to deep areas of water bodies, and accumulate in them in large numbers. Loaches lead a flocking lifestyle. But on the shallows with a rapid course, they prefer to stay alone, hiding between the stones.
The abundance of char, like many fish, is considered dynamic. They can be numerous in certain places, and then completely disappear, and recover again after some time. In the 80s, these fish almost disappeared from a huge number of biotopes, due to their poor environmental situation. But in the 90s, the species recovered and became numerous.Loach - spotted fish.
Moreover, the distribution of char is uneven. Presumably, this species is more numerous in the east, and in the west there are fewer of these fish. In certain ponds for complex purposes, char is found in large numbers.
These fish reach puberty at the age of 3 years. At the same time, char is a rather prolific fish; one female brings about 6 thousand eggs. In Surskii populations, loaches were found, measuring 8 centimeters with 1.9 thousand eggs.
Spawn these fish in portions in May-June. Caviar is deposited in the sand, and in rivers with the course attached to underwater plants. Sexual dimorphism is clearly visible: males are larger than females. In addition, in males, a leathery ridge is located closer to the tail, which exceeds the pectoral fins of females in size.
Loach growth and longevityLoaches are not very large fish.
The char is not a large fish, it reaches about 18 centimeters in length, and weighs up to 40 grams. In Mordovian populations, the average body length of these fish is less than about 11-13 centimeters, and only some individuals grow to 16 centimeters. These fish grow rapidly. Presumably, loaches live for about 6-7 years.
What does the char eat?
These fish feed on mollusks, chironomids, oligochaetes and other zoobenthophages. In addition, their diet consists of eggs of other fish. Loaches are on the same food stage with gudgeons. And since these two species live together, they compete with each other.
The value of loaches in natureLoach lives 6 - 7 years.
In terms of economic purpose, this fish is not important, but it serves as a bio-indicator of water purity. The char is caught on a fishing rod. Many fishermen use this fish as a bait.
In Finland, char is widely distributed both in the south and in the north. At the same time, char is found in almost all streams, rivers, lakes and ponds, except for certain areas, for example, in the Trans-Urals.
These fish do not have high requirements for water quality - they can live in cool springs and warm, muddy pond water, and in ponds they can breed in large numbers. This happens in Central Europe, and in Russia - in the Orenburg and Perm provinces. But behind the Ural ridge, these fish live only in running water, while in standing waters they are completely absent. In the Urals, char is not often found even in flowing lakes, and preference is given only to small rivers. But the North Ural loaches differ from their Central Russian counterparts, most likely, these are two different species.
Loaches most often stay on the bottom, this also applies to muddy ponds and rivers with flowing water. These fish can swim vigorously, but prefer to lie still more, hiding between stones and snags. Often they are buried in silt and sand. Sometimes they make minks under the stones and crawl into crevices, in connection with which, their fins look upholstered.Sometimes quite large individuals come across.
In small rivers, these fish prefer to keep separate, rather than in schools. At the same time, they prefer rifts and bays with a shallow depth. But in lakes and dams loaches are found in large flocks, where they choose deeper sections, especially in winter. At this time, they accumulate in large numbers in deep holes, from which they leave only in the spring, just before the opening of the river. And in non-freezing rivers, loaches stay on the rifts all winter. In shallow ponds, in which the water freezes almost completely, but there is a lot of silt at the bottom, loaches winter as well as crucians.
The char has a fairly high survivability, it is able to withstand the drying of marshy ponds. He waits this time in the damp earth. When the water in the reservoirs warms up strongly in summer, these fish are understood to the surface and begin to rush there. At such moments, crows exterminate them in large numbers, deftly grabbing in flight.
Loaches feed on worms, aquatic insects and caviar of other fish. In dug ponds, char can cause significant harm, multiplying greatly and destroying crucian caviar. Sometimes this leads to the fact that crucians completely disappear in certain reservoirs.
In some ponds near Moscow, this fish is very numerous. So that the char does not bring much harm, it is advisable to launch perch or pike in such ponds. In the rivers, loaches are not so numerous (although the rivers are their natural biotopes) this is due to the destruction of their predators such as trout, burbot, chubs. To survive in the rivers, loaches have to hide between stones during the day, and only get food at night. And in the ponds, loaches can lead an open life without fear of predator attacks in the daytime. These fish are very vulnerable to predators due to the fact that they can quickly swim only a small distance, and then exhale.
Loaches, like loaches, do not tolerate the change of weather. When the water temperature changes, these fish often begin to rise to the surface, grab water and fall, like a stick, in depth. They show the greatest anxiety in a thunderstorm or before it begins. Electricity has a greater effect on bottom inhabitants than on fish that live in the upper layers of the water.
Spawning occurs in char loaches rather early in April, sometimes in May. At the same time, females toss a large amount of caviar. In the rivers they lay eggs on the rifts, and from the ponds in the spring they swim out into small streams. In April, they can also be found in ditches that have links with ponds. During spawning, the male digs a hole in the sand in order for the female to lay her eggs in it. The male guards the fertilized eggs until fry hatch from it.
Since loaches are small, fishermen do not often pay attention to them and do not engage in their active fishing. They are caught on fishing rods only in ponds, and in rivers, because of their small numbers, it is unlikely to catch char on a fishing rod. But in the ponds, when char lovers reproduce very actively, they bite constantly. The char is best caught on a red worm or bloodworm, rarely goes for bread. Loaches often peck, but the nibble is quiet, so the float only lowers slightly and slowly stretches to the side.
Since char is a very tenacious fish, it is an excellent bait for predatory fish. Trout and burbot go especially well on them. If there are a lot of burbots and chubs in the pond, they also go well for loaches.
They put loaches behind the back or behind the lip. If you use char as a bait, then it is worth remembering that this fish loves to hide between stones. When catching perches and chubs in rivers with a strong current, loaches should be put on a special tackle, which consists of three hooks on the vein liner, because in case of a large current, predators grab the bait from the plaque and often eat it. But the char is considered an excellent live bait, because it has fleshy lips and it is not so easy to remove it from the hook, while it lives longer than a gudgeon. On land, he does not die for a long time and remains alive in the wet grass.