Castration is one of the first operations mastered by man. The procedure is complete and incomplete. The latter was applied in ancient Rome to some slaves. Rich matrons used them for sexual pleasures. Incomplete castration ruled out the possibility of conception.
Now an incomplete operation is called sterilization and is applied, like a complete one, to animals. Most often, cats go through the procedure. What is the difference between full and incomplete methods and why should castrate pets?
The essence of castration cat
Castration cat - This is the removal of the testes. During sterilization, they only block their channels. Sperm cannot escape naturally, destroying in the testes and the accessible part of the canals. The protein is utilized by phagocytes - blood cells that capture and utilize unnecessary.
Sterilization preserves the hormonal background, in particular, the production of testosterone. Therefore, the character of the cat does not change, the attraction to the opposite sex, activity, male aggressiveness are preserved.
Cat after castration behaves differently, since the removal of the testicles leads to a decrease in hormonal levels. With the blocking of testosterone production, the animal becomes non-manly compliant, calm, does not show interest in cats.
There are three castration methods. The first is open. The scrotum and the common vaginal membrane are cut, which covers the testis and has access to the abdominal cavity through the vaginal canal. The testicle itself is removed.
In this case, the vaginal ligament is cut near the appendage. The ligament is fibrous, connects the inner and outer layers of the scrotum. Cutting the ligament allows you to maximize the opening of the spermatic cord. At the top point they have a ligature - a dressing thread.
The cord below it is cut off at a centimeter distance. The tail of the appendage in the vaginal membrane is also cut. Actions are repeated in the second half of the scrotum and sprinkle wounds with an antiseptic. Sutures during castration do not impose.
The second method is closed. The essence of castration cat in this case, only the scrotum is reduced to the incision. The vaginal membrane underneath is twisted 180 degrees, stitched and ligated with a ligature at the top point.
In fact, we are talking about sterilization. The testicles are preserved. But, the exit to the abdominal cavity is blocked. It is necessary to block cats with extended inguinal openings. They are increased in the elderly and individuals with hernias.
A separate conversation is the castration of cryptorchids. In such cats, the testes or one of them linger in the body cavity or inguinal canal. Anomaly leads to increased aggression and increased sexual desire. During surgery, the skin is dissected obliquely in the area of the inguinal ring.
A five-centimeter incision is usually enough to extract the testes. In this case, you need to pull off the inguinal arteries and spread the subcutaneous fat with your hands. Hands grope and maximize the testis. A ligature is superimposed on his appendage as highly as possible. Below is a cut.
Surgeons take into account that during the cutting of the seminiferous tubules, cats spontaneously urinate. The jet can get into the face of the doctor. It is also important to consider the type of operation. So, during castration of bilateral cryptorchids, they are placed on their back, fixing their paws.
General anesthesia is required. If the cryptorch is one-sided, it is laid on its side with a correctly located testis. Castration time for cats is 20-30 minutes.
At what age to castrate a cat
At what age to castrate a cat Depends on its anatomy. So, temporary cryptorchidism is possible. Under the age of one year, the testes may fall. However, in the 2nd year of life of the cryptorch cat, the question of castration arises.
If the testes have the correct physiological location and a decision is made on castration, the operation is recommended to be carried out in 7-9 months. The lower border is the beginning of puberty. At the 11th month, it usually already ends.
If you operate another kitten, the risk of developing complications is high. They affect the urethra. Adhesions form in its channels. They block the ureter. The process of inflammation starts, accompanying the recovery period after castration.
Meanwhile, young cats have narrow urinary canals. The inflammation that adult animals can easily tolerate, kittens bear with severe consequences.
Castration of a cat after 9 months of age is fraught not so much with health problems as with unwanted intercourse with females, fights over territory with individuals of their gender.
How to prepare a cat for castration
Before castration of a cat surveyed. Especially carefully check the health of the genitourinary system and heart. The latter is examined, given the operation under general anesthesia. With pathology of the heart muscle, complications are possible up to a fatal outcome.
Mandatory treatment of the cat from helminths and external treatment from parasites. They are carried out 10 days before castration. If the previous anthelmintic treatment was carried out a month or less before surgery, a second is not required.
Before the operation, the presence of planned vaccinations is checked. Since the last vaccination, it should be a month or more.
For cats without vaccinations, a special serum is provided. It is complex, provides the development of immunity for 2 weeks.
12 hours before surgery, they stop giving the cat food, drink it at a minimum. Anesthesia provokes the urge to vomit. So that asphyxiation does not occur, that is, suffocation by vomit, the stomach and intestines should be emptied.
The owners need to prepare a cat veterinary passport with vaccination marks, a blanket, a convertible top, a disposable diaper as a bedding for carrying and napkins. This set is taken for surgery. Wipes are needed in case of vomiting.
Care after castration
Anesthesia after castration of a cat departs when the animal is on the way home, or already at home. The process is unpredictable, partly dependent on preoperative preparation, the accuracy of the dosage of the drug and the individual reaction of the animal to it.
Perhaps a riot when moving away from anesthesia. Therefore, you need a spacious carrying with a closing top. Do not carry the cat in your arms or the car seat.
During transportation and until the moment of departure from anesthesia, the cat should lie on its side. In order to avoid the difficult transportation of a pet, some order castration of a cat at home.
Under the influence of anesthesia, the animal cannot regulate body temperature. therefore care for the cat after castration provides for heat. The first day after the operation, the pet is wrapped in a warm blanket, put a heating pad or a bottle filled with warm water. They are placed near the back of the cat.
It is necessary to exclude warming of the perineum. This can cause inflammation or bleeding. Given this, the carrying should not be placed next to the battery, fireplace. Drafts should also be excluded.
Carrying, or sleeping place, where the cat moves at home, should be on the floor. From an altitude, the animal may not be fully adequate after anesthesia.
Cats do not close their eyelids during narcotic sleep. This leads to the drying of the cornea and, as a result, to its inflammation. It is necessary to prevent the process. It is enough to close the eyelids of the pet every half an hour and gently massage over the eyeballs.
Not only the cat's eyes are overdried from anesthesia. Dehydration suffers the whole body. This leads to thirst. As soon as the cat gets stronger, it will stand on its feet, it is important to give it clean water. It is advisable that the bowl with her should stand close to the carrying.
Cats are fed at least 20 hours after castration. By this time, most animals have time to grow stronger and show interest in food. You can’t give it by force. If the cat asks for food, they offer him meat broth, kefir or cottage cheese.
The first 10 days after surgery, the cat is given the usual foods. After, the transition to a special diet for castrated animals is smoothly carried out. Dry food is released for them.
The minimum time for a cat to leave anesthesia is 2 hours, and the maximum is 24 hours. Often at this time cat marks after castration. Urination is involuntary. Do not punish the animal. After a few days, the pet will again be able to control urination.
Bathing a cat is allowed about 2 weeks after castration. By this time, the wounds are tightened. If cleaning is required before, use dry shampoo or wet wipes. It is worth stocking up with a special collar.
This is in case of active cat licking wounds. Rough tongue can interfere with their healing. Collar is sold in pet stores and pet stores. Some cats wear a collar for 7 days. Other pets do not show much interest in postoperative wounds. Then the collar is not worn.
Pros and Cons of Castration
Pros and cons of castration cat - a list that differs from the point of view of scientists and ordinary people. Veterinarians see in the operation only positive. Castrated cats live 1.5-2 years longer than usual, do not mark the territory and do not show aggression.
Animals cease to meow at night and become as obedient as possible. You can forget about prostate adenoma and genital infections. They are not threatened with a neutered cat. Tumor processes after surgery are also unlikely, especially if a young pet has undergone intervention.
Owners of cats find in castration and cons, noting that many animals become obese. This is due to laziness after surgery. Leading a sedentary lifestyle and not interested in the opposite sex, the mustachioes find solace in food.
However, completeness is the result of improperly selected diets and diet, veterinarians say.
Doctors allow only one objective minus castration - an increased risk of urolithiasis. For this part, systematic examinations are required.
The price of the procedure
Cat castration price lies in the range of 1-7 thousand rubles. A minimum is requested by standard budget clinics, and a maximum by private ones.
The surgeon's home visit is approximately 30% more expensive than surgery in a medical facility. Part of the price depends on the region and condition of the cat. Cryptorch surgery, for example, is more difficult.
Castration is a simple operation. For comparison, the minimum sterilization price tag is 3 thousand rubles. The request is due to the duration of the intervention, its complexity, the cost of medicines