Such a well-known fish as tench is familiar to many. Tench - a rather slippery type, which is not easy to hold in your hands, but the fishermen are very happy when it comes to their hook, because the meat of tench is not only dietary, but also very tasty. Almost everyone knows the appearance of a tench, but few people thought about its life. Let’s try to understand his fish habits characterizing character and disposition, as well as find out where he prefers to settle and feels most comfortable.
Origin of view and description
Tench is a species of ray-finned fish belonging to the cyprinid family and the order of cyprinids. He is one sole representative of the genus of the same name (Tinca). From the name of the fish family it is clear that carp is the closest relative of tench, although you cannot immediately tell in appearance, because there are no similarities at first glance. Microscopic scales, which have a golden-olive hue and an impressive layer of mucus, covering it - these are the main distinguishing features of the line.
Interesting fact: On the line extracted from the water, the mucus dries quickly and begins to fall off in whole pieces, it seems that the fish sheds, shedding skin. Many believe that it is because of this that she was nicknamed.
There is another assumption regarding the fish name that characterizes its lifestyle. The fish is inert and inactive, so many believe that its name is associated with the word "laziness", which later acquired such a new sound as "tench".
Under natural conditions, tench is not subdivided into separate varieties, but there are a couple of species that people have bred artificially, these are the golden and Kwolsdorf line. The first is very beautiful and similar to a goldfish, so it is often populated in decorative reservoirs. The second is outwardly identical to the usual line, but grows much faster and has significant dimensions (one and a half kilogram fish is considered standard).
As for the ordinary line created by nature itself, it can also reach impressive dimensions, reaching a length of up to 70 cm and a body weight of up to 7.5 kg. Such specimens are not common, therefore, the average length of the fish body varies from 20 to 40 cm. In our country, fishermen most often catch a line weighing from 150 to 700 grams.
Some subdivide the line relative to those reservoirs where they live, highlighting:
- the lake line, which is considered the largest and most powerful, is fond of large lakes and reservoir areas;
- the river line, which is different from the first one in smaller sizes, the mouth of the fish is raised upward, inhabits river backwaters and bays;
- a pond line, which is also smaller than a lake line and perfectly inhabits both natural standing reservoirs and artificial ponds;
- dwarf tench, settling in stocked reservoirs, because of which its dimensions do not exceed a dozen centimeters in length, but it is most common.
Appearance and features
Photo: Tench fish
The build of the tench is quite powerful, its body is high and slightly compressed laterally. The skin of the tench is very dense and covered with such small scales that it becomes like a reptile's skin. The color of the skin seems greenish or olive, but this feeling is created due to the thick layer of mucus. If you clean it, you can see that a yellowish tone with various shades prevails. Depending on the habitat, the color of the tench can vary from light yellowish-beige with some green to almost black. Where the bottom is sandy and the color of the fish matches it, it is light, and in reservoirs where there is a lot of silt and peat, tench has a dark color, all this helps him to disguise himself.
Tench is slippery for a reason, mucus is its natural defense, which saves from predators who do not like slick fish. The presence of mucus helps the line prevent oxygen starvation during unbearable summer heat, when the water warms up strongly and oxygen in it becomes insufficient. In addition, mucus has healing properties, its effect is similar to the action of antibiotics, so the lines rarely get sick.
Interesting fact: It is noticed that other species of fish swim to the lines, as to doctors if they become ill. They come closer to the line and begin to rub against its slippery sides. For example, sick pikes do this, at such moments they don’t even think about a snack with a tench.
Fish fins have a shortened shape, look a little thick and their color is much darker than the tone of the entire line, in some individuals they are almost black. There is no recess on the caudal fin, so it is almost straight. The head of the fish does not differ in large sizes. Lin can be called thick-lipped, his mouth is lighter than the color of all the scales. Pharyngeal fish teeth are arranged in a row and have curved ends. Small thick antennae emphasize not only its solidity, but also family ties with carps. The eyes of a tench have a reddish tint, they are small and deep set. Males can be easily distinguished from females, as they have larger and thicker ventral fins. More males are smaller than females, because grow much slower.
Where does tench live?
Photo: Tench in water
On the territory of our country, tench has been registered throughout its European part, partially having entered Asian spaces.
He is thermophilic, therefore he loves the basins of the following seas:
Its area occupies spaces from the water bodies of the Urals to Lake Baikal. Rarely, but tench can be met in such rivers as the Angara, Yenisei and Ob. Fish inhabit Europe and the Asian latitudes, where there is a temperate climate. First of all, tench is fond of standing water systems in regions with a warm climate.
In such places he is a permanent resident:
- ducts with a weak course.
Lin tries to avoid water areas with cold water and rapid currents, so you can not meet him in the stormy mountain rivers. Freely and freely, the line where the reeds and reeds grow, snags drift on the muddy bottom, many quiet backwaters heated by the sun's rays, overgrown with various algae. Most often, the fish goes to the overgrown depth, keeping close to steep banks.
The abundance of mud for tench is one of the most favorable conditions, because in it he finds his livelihood. This mustachioed is considered settled, living his whole life in his favorite territory. Lin prefers a leisurely and solitary existence in the muddy depths.
Interesting fact: Lack of oxygen, salt water and increased acidity are not scary for the tench; therefore, it can easily adapt to swampy water bodies and live in floodplain lakes, where saltwater has access.
Now you know where tench fish is found. Let's find out how it can be fed.
What does tench eat?
Photo: Tench fish underwater
For the most part, the menu line consists of invertebrates that live on the muddy bottom of a reservoir.
Fish diet is quite diverse, tench is not averse to a bite:
- water bugs;
- fry of other fish;
- water bugs;
- all sorts of larvae (especially mosquitoes).
In addition to animal food, tench eats vegetable matter with pleasure: a variety of algae, shoots of sedge, reed, cattail, stalks of water lilies.
Interesting fact: In food, tench is unpretentious, does not have any special food addictions (especially seasonal), therefore it absorbs what it comes across under fins.
The places of feeding the fish are chosen by bottom areas with a silty or peat bottom and undergrowth overgrowth. To detect food, the lines have to literally dig around, breaking the bottom, which provokes the appearance of air bubbles on the surface of the water surface, which give out the location of the line. The time for feeding the line falls on a very early morning or at dawn. In the afternoon, with plenty of sunlight, the fish does not want to feed. At night, tench does not feed, but sleeps in bottom depressions. With the onset of autumn cold weather, the fish eats much less and feeds less frequently, gradually preparing for hibernation when feeding completely stops.
Features of character and lifestyle
Photo: Golden tench
Lin, unlike his carp relatives, is characterized by slowness, slowness, and leisurely. Lin is very careful, shy, so it can be difficult to catch him. Clinging to a hook, his whole being changes: he begins to show aggression, resourcefulness, throws all his strength into resistance and can easily break loose (especially a weighty instance). This is not surprising, because when you want to live, you still won’t get so wrapped up.
The tench, like a mole, eschews bright sunshine, does not like to go out, keeping itself in secluded, shady, water thickets in the depths. Mature individuals prefer to live all alone, but young animals are often combined in flocks numbering from 5 to 15 fish. He also seeks food for tench at dusk.
Interesting fact: Despite the fact that the tench is inert and inactive, it makes fodder migrations almost every day, moving from the coastal zone to the depth, and then back to the coast. During spawning, he can also look for a new place for spawning.
In late autumn, the lines burrow into silt and fall into suspended animation or hibernation, which ends with the arrival of spring days, when the water column begins to warm up to four degrees with a plus sign. Awakened, the lines rush closer to the shores, densely overgrown with aquatic vegetation, which they begin to reinforce after a long winter diet. It is noticed that in intense heat the fish become lethargic and try to stay closer to the bottom, where it is cooler. When autumn is approaching and the water begins to cool slightly, tench is most active.
Social structure and reproduction
Photo: Flock of Lines
As already noted, adult lines of the collective way of life, prefer solitary existence in the dark depths. Only inexperienced young people form small flocks. Do not forget that tench is thermophilic, therefore it spawns only closer to the end of May. When the water is already well warmed up (from 17 to 20 degrees). Sexually mature lines become closer to three or four years of age when they gain weight from 200 to 400 grams.
For their spawning grounds, fish choose shallow places that are overgrown with all kinds of plants and are slightly blown by the wind. The spawning process proceeds in several stages, the intervals between which can reach up to two weeks. The eggs are laid shallow, usually within a meter depth, attaching to tree branches lowered into the water and various aquatic plants.
An interesting fact: The lines are very fertile, one female can produce from 20 to 600 thousand eggs, the incubation period of which varies from only 70 to 75 hours.
The eggs of tench are not very large and have a characteristic greenish tint. The fry that were born, about 3 mm long, do not leave their place of birth for several more days, being reinforced by the nutrients remaining in the yolk sac. Then they embark on an independent voyage, uniting in flocks. Their diet initially consists of zooplankton and algae, then bottom invertebrates appear in it.
Small fish grow up slowly, by the age of one year their length is 3-4 cm. After another year, they double in size and only at the age of five their length reaches twenty centimeters. It was established that the development and growth of the line continues for seven years, and they live from 12 to 16.
Natural enemies of the line
Photo: Tench fish
Surprisingly, such a peaceful and shy fish like tench do not have many enemies in the wild. This fish owes its unique mucus to the body. Predatory fish and mammals who like to eat fish, turn their nose off the tench, which does not arouse their appetite due to the thick layer of unpleasant mucus, which also has its own specific smell.
Most often, in large quantities, lingual caviar and inexperienced fry suffer. Tench does not guard its masonry, and fry are very vulnerable, therefore, both small fish and eggs gladly eat various fish (pikes, perches), and animals (otters, muskrats), waterfowls do not mind eating them either. Natural cataclysms also become the cause of the death of a huge number of eggs, when the flood ends and the water level drops sharply, then the caviar, which is in shallow water, simply dries up.
A person can also be called an enemy of tench, especially one who skillfully manages a fishing rod. Often fishing tench begins even before spawning. Anglers use all kinds of cunning baits and bait, because tench is very wary of everything new. Caught tench has several advantages: firstly, it is very meaty, secondly, its meat is very tasty and dietary, and thirdly, there is no need to clean the scales, so it is not so long to mess with it.
Population and species status
In the vastness of Europe, the range of tench settlement is very extensive. If we talk about the population of the line as a whole, it can be noted that its number does not threaten extinction, but there are a number of negative anthropogenic factors that affect it negatively. First of all, it is the environmental degradation of those reservoirs where tench has been prescribed. This is the result of rash economic activities of people.
Mass death of tench is observed in winter, when there is a sharp drop in water level in reservoirs, which leads to the fact that wintering fish simply freeze in ice, they lack space to normally dig into silt and winter. On the territory of our country, poaching is flourishing beyond the Urals, which is why tench populations there have declined significantly.
All these human actions led to the fact that in some regions, both our state and abroad, tench began to disappear and cause concern of environmental organizations, therefore it was included in the Red Books of these places. Once again, it is worth clarifying that such a situation has developed only in certain places, and not everywhere, basically, the tench is quite widely dispersed and its number is at the proper level, without causing any fears, which cannot but rejoice. It is hoped that this will continue in the future.
Photo: Lin from the Red Book
As noted earlier, the number of lines in some regions decreased significantly as a result of barbaric human actions, so I had to add this interesting fish to the Red Books of individual regions. Tench is listed in the Red Book of Moscow as a vulnerable species in this territory. The main limiting factors here are discharges of dirty wastewater into the Moscow River, concreting of the coastline, a large number of motorized swimming facilities that interfere with shy fish, and an increase in the population of rotan eating lingua caviar and fry.
In eastern Siberia, tench is also considered a rarity, especially in the waters of Lake Baikal. The growth of poaching led to this, so tench is in the Red Book of Buryatia. Lin is considered rare in the Yaroslavl region due to the lack of secluded places overgrown with aquatic vegetation, where he could spawn calmly. As a result, he is listed in the Red Book of the Yaroslavl region. In the Irkutsk region, tench is also listed in the Red Book of the Irkutsk region. In addition to our country, tench is protected in Germany, as there its number is also very small.
To preserve this type of fish, the following conservation measures are recommended:
- constant monitoring of known populations;
- monitoring wintering grounds and spawning grounds;
- conservation of natural coastal zones within the city;
- clearing of garbage and industrial pollution of spawning places and wintering grounds;
- prohibition of fishing during the spawning period;
- tougher penalties for poaching.
In the end, I want to add that unusual for its mucus and size of scales tench, revealed to many from different sides, because his habits and traits, which turned out to be very peaceful, sedate and unhurried, were analyzed. The appearance of a handsome tench cannot be confused with any other, because It is original and very original.