Training and raising a puppy, as well as its competent and timely socialization, are an integral part of keeping a pet of any breed. It is important to remember that puppies are easier to train than adults, and proper education allows you to raise a smart, disciplined and obedient animal that adequately responds to everything that happens around.
Basic rules of training
The set of basic rules and professional recommendations of experienced dog handlers, conditionally called the "trainer code", allows you to achieve high results in the education and socialization of the puppy for the shortest possible time:
- the development in the pet of a number of conditioned connections and reactions to certain given signals (gestures and commands) of the owner suggests the formation of a strong conditioned reflex in the animal;
- the time gap from the given command to the subsequent direct impact on the pet should be minimal, amounting to about a couple of seconds, which will prevent the dog from developing unwanted "slow" work;
- a conditional signal in the form of a command should be given to the dog once, and then the owner must prompt the pet to correctly perform the necessary action;
- humanizing a dog is a typical mistake of many novice dog breeders; therefore, one should not hope for a pet to understand human speech, but should be guided by the development of a sufficient number of conditional connections in an animal.
It is interesting! It should be noted that the puppy can be raised and trained only after the animal has completely adapted to the new place of residence, as well as the establishment of completely confidential contact between the owner and the pet.
The reaction to any intonation of a person’s speech is inherent in the pet by nature itself, so all commands should be given in a sufficiently loud and clear, confident voice, but without using a scream. Encouragement in the process of training is an integral part and the most important incentive for education. But only under the conditions of proper use.
What to teach a dog
The training standards are very wide, so each owner of the puppy should initially be ready to choose the best option for his pet. For example, OKD, or the general training course, which is considered mandatory for all dogs to complete, is not always final. The basic set of this training course is represented by such basic commands as “Sit”, “Nearby”, “Lie”, “To me”, “You cannot”, “Fu” and some others.
Dogs are by nature smart social animals that can very well become great helpers in everyday life. They have a variety of beneficial natural features, including an exceptional scent and very keen hearing.
It is interesting! When choosing teams that are simply interesting or absolutely necessary for the dog and its owner, the owner should be guided by many factors, but ideally, the training course should not only be attractive to the animal, but also practical.
Among other things, it is very important for a pet to feel like a full member in a social group, performing any functions, therefore, after passing the OKD, the puppy can be trained in some special teams.
Relations within the family, where there is a four-legged pet, must be formed in a special way, and the incorrect position of the animal in the conditions of the family hierarchy can cause bad consequences or numerous problems. The puppy should be raised from the moment it appears in the house. At the first stage, it is necessary to clearly determine the boundaries of the permissible.
Dogs can be dominants and subdominants with borderline behavior and loyal to all family members. Dominant behavior most often appears with permissiveness and lack of competent education. Subdominants are subordinate only to dominants, therefore, such dogs in the family choose one leader, whose pet predominantly obeys.
It is interesting! The best option for any family will be a loyal dog, whose character is formed in harmonious relationships. It is such a pet that recognizes all family members, including children, equally.
Animals with a borderline type of behavior suffer from a lack of communication and low self-esteem, show disobedience and are able to get lost in an unfamiliar environment.
Attitude towards strangers
As a rule, the attitude of a four-legged pet towards strangers directly depends on the place and circumstances of the meeting with them. Most often when encountering strangers on the street or in an unfamiliar place, dogs do not show any interest in them, but with improper upbringing or insufficient socialization, the animal may well appear frightened or noticeable unmotivated aggression.
It is interesting! According to many experts, the best option is to raise a dog with reasonable suspicion, wary of the guests and watching them, but not using active actions without the need or special command of the owner.
The appearance of a stranger in a house, or on a site that a dog is considered to be his territory, can provoke a very different form of behavior that directly depends on the breed characteristics or past experience. Representatives of absolutely any guard breeds, characterized by the presence of a hierarchical rank, do not allow strangers even to step on the territory protected by them.
Attitude to other dogs
Some novice dog breeders may experience certain problems associated with the communication of their four-legged pets with any other dogs. Such behavioral characteristics can manifest themselves in the form of an overly aggressive behavior of the pet or its excessive cowardice. Unmotivated cowardice very often provokes an isolated puppy raising or overly rough handling.
Aggression towards oneself like (intraspecific aggression) of varying severity is most often shown by representatives of some large and fighting breeds, as well as adult cables. Among other things, this style of behavior is very characteristic of small, but very spoiled and overly caressed representatives of decorative breeds.
It is interesting! If it is impossible to independently correct the flaws in the upbringing of an adult dog, if the puppy was socialized incorrectly, it is advisable to seek help from professional dog handlers who can correct the behavioral deviations of the animal.
In order to minimize the risk of developing an unmotivated intraspecific aggression or cowardice in an adult four-legged pet, it is necessary to actively socialize a puppy aged two to four months. During this period, it is important to carefully monitor and, if necessary, adjust the puppy's behavior while walking or simply communicating with other dogs.
Relation to other animals
Representatives of many breeds with a highly developed hunter instinct cannot become ideal four-legged pets for owners of other pets. At the same time, the dog’s attitude to other animals largely depends on how correctly the pet is trained and tuned. Most often, in the living environment, dogs live side by side with cats that do not claim leadership in the family hierarchy.. However, too aggressive and large cats are quite capable of causing serious injuries to small dogs or puppies.
An ideal option for peaceful coexistence will be the simultaneous appearance of a puppy and a kitten in the house, which will grow and socialize together. If a new animal is brought into a house where there is already an adult dog, it is very important for the first time to constantly monitor the behavior of pets.
It is interesting! It is categorically not recommended to keep together representatives of breeds that are intended for hunting burrowing and feathered animals, with other, especially not too large, pets, including rodents and birds.
Particularly irreconcilable animals, it is advisable to divide and limit as much as possible in communication, which will prevent constant conflicts between the warring parties.
Puppy Training Stages
Puppies during the growing up period quite naturally go through several basic stages of development that occur in representatives of different breeds at different times. For each such stage, certain behavioral characteristics are characteristic, which should be taken into account in the process of training and education.
In the first six months
In the first couple of weeks of life, the needs of the puppies are purely physiological, and the reflex movements of this period allow the animal to subsequently give its owner a paw, demonstrate friendliness and humility. The sealing period lasts from one month to two months of age. It is at this time that the dog comprehends the surrounding reality, so you can begin to train the baby to respond to the nickname, lay the foundation for successful training based on contact with the owner.
The stage of socialization in the form of active acquaintance and cognition of the world around puppies falls on the period of 8-12 weeks. The phase of socialization is considered to be the most suitable moment for the dog to learn the basics of training, so you can teach your puppy discipline, as well as teach general basic commands: "Come to me!" and "Place!". A little later, the dog will be able to learn more complex skills: "Lie down!" and "Sit!" as well as "Fu!"
At the age of four months, puppies, as a rule, are characterized by increased excitability and an unstable psyche, so any overwork can cause a pet to develop stress. Nevertheless, the skills of obedience and respect for subordination within the family must be developed even during the game.
An animal from an early age must necessarily recognize the personal leadership of people. Proper education at the stage of domination helps to establish the closest psychological contact between the owner and the dog.
With strict observance of the rules of upbringing and competent, consistent training, a three-month-old puppy must be able to fully recognize the rights and follow the requirements of its owner. It is also necessary to take into account the fact that by the age of four months, representatives of many breeds (especially males) completely end the phase of forming an emotional perception of the characteristics of the world around them, so some of the acquired skills and attitudes remain with the pet for life.
After 6 months
The stage of manifest manifestation of independence falls on the period from six to eight months of age. At this time, four-legged pets generally recognize the leadership of the owner, but can sometimes afford some liberties in their behavior that demonstrate independence and are aimed at manifesting individuality. In such situations, the owner of the puppy must be persistent and firm in developing an unchanging habit in the animal to clearly carry out any commands of the owner.
Also, with the onset of puberty, you should not allow the four-legged pet to establish primacy over any member of the family. As a rule, the nature of a teenage bitch stabilizes at the time of the first estrus, at eight months of age. Males at this time begin to very actively mark their territory, so uneven behavior can be observed, which is accompanied by the manifestation of some puppy habits.
A dog is an incredibly attentive observer, capable of surprisingly subtly feeling a variety of human intentions and emotions. Regardless of the purpose of acquiring a puppy, such a pet must be educated and must be trained in teams, which will help the dog comply with the rules of behavior in society and at home. Even a minimal set of commands allows you to control the behavior of a four-legged pet.
When practicing with the puppy the commands "Stand!", "Sit!" and “Lie!” quite a few common mistakes are made by many dog owners:
- the command is given after the physical impact;
- a strong jerk with a leash or rough pressure;
- giving a command is performed in the same circumstances or strictly from the same static pose;
- the training is too long, causing fatigue of the pet.
It is interesting! In the process of training a pet, it is important to maintain the right balance between rewards and strictness, and excessive severity and inconsistency in requirements harm training, may require contacting an experienced trainer to correct the behavior of the animal.
In any case, it must be remembered that it is the encouragement that is the best way to shape the puppy’s behavior, and to consolidate the team under study requires about ten or more repetitions of the skill using a wide variety of situations.
At the first stage, you should determine the puppy's place and properly equip him. At the same time, the place should be comfortable enough for the pet, without the negative effects of drafts or excess heat from heating devices. For any dog, such an inviolable zone is not used as any punishment. Teaching a team begins with a very simple technique: just transfer the puppy asleep in the wrong place to the bedding and voice the command “Place!”.
Team "To me!"
Saying the command “Come to me!” For the first time, you should knock the bowl with food on the floor, which will quickly develop a conditioned reflex in the puppy. This command must be uttered in a calm and quiet voice, and the process of its development involves encouraging the animal with praise and dainty. It is important to remember that initially the “To me!” Command it is desirable to pronounce along with the nickname of the puppy, and after some time the animal will learn to respond only to the call to come up.
The easiest to learn and easiest puppy command. After taking the dog out into the street, the “Walk!” Command is pronounced in a sufficiently loud voice, after which it is required to unfasten the leash. A pet must definitely have a clear reaction precisely to a voice command, and not to the process of releasing from a leash. Walking with a pet on a street without a leash is permissible only if there is complete confidence in the accuracy of the dog’s performance of the Stand! Command.
To the execution of the voice command "Sit!" you should teach your puppy from two months of age without overworking your pet with training. Taking a piece of your favorite treat in your right hand, you need to stimulate the animal to throw its head back, after which you need to push the dog on the croup, pronouncing the command. Only after the puppy learns to execute the command, being with its owner next to it, can it be complicated. To this end, you should plant a pet, step back a bit, and command the dog: "Sit!" When performed correctly, a four-legged pet is encouraged.
The command "Lie down!"
The team begins to be practiced at the age of three months, from a standing and sitting position. Most often, mining is carried out on the street. For this purpose, the leash is passed under the left foot, after which pressure is applied to the withers and the leash is pulled at the same time. As soon as the pet takes the required position, it should be encouraged by a treat. Training is recommended to be carried out in a daily mode until the puppy learns to fulfill the command without treats. If necessary, the "Lie!" fixed with a gesture in which the right hand is required to raise the palm down and lower to the thigh.
To properly work out the command “Near!”, You need to teach your puppy to wear a collar and leash. To work out this command, it is necessary to seat the animal near the left foot so that the dog’s shoulder is at the level of the owner’s knee, after which the pet owner begins to move with the simultaneous issuance of the command “Next!”. When the movement stops, the puppy must sit as close as possible with the leg of its owner.
Teams "Fu!" and "You can’t!"
Two interconnected teams are worked out separately. Team "Fu!" it is used if the puppy performs inappropriate actions - things go bad and garbage is picked up during the walk. The team is pronounced without screaming, but clearly, with the selection of unnecessary things from the puppy. Pin team "Fu!" preferably on the stern, which stretches the puppy, but should not be eaten by him. Experts believe that the development of the team "Do not!" and "Fu!" may well be complemented by minor pain.
One of the most important teams, the development of which helps to control the dog’s actions at a distance. In order to practice the team, you need to suspect the dog and take it on a leash. This command can be completely worked out from a prone position and sitting. To do this, step forward while simultaneously pulling the pet by the leash up and forward, saying "Stand!" and stopping. When practicing from a prone position, giving a command is accompanied by simultaneously pushing the puppy with his hand so that the pet stands up. In addition, you can master the accompanying gesture, in which the right hand, slightly bent at the elbow, needs to be raised to the shoulder and lowered to the hip.
When you need professional training
If the initial training allows you to create a conflict-free (hierarchical) relationship between the dog and the man, then professional training, which takes about six months, involves training the animal in the future profession.
In the process of applied use, sophisticated training is used, combined with real work and honing the dog’s skills. Thus, after the puppy has completed the initial training course, it is time to give the pet a preferred profession.
The main dog professions that are in demand today by modern society are:
- companion (friend, family member);
- a guide;
- protection service (family protection);
- guard service (property protection);
- the destruction of terrorists;
- search service (tracking people and animals, detecting drugs or explosives);
- hunting assistant.
In accordance with the identified abilities, the dog learns to realize its full potential in order to solve certain applied problems.
It is interesting! Professional dog training involves the use of a specially equipped training platform (training ground), where absolutely all the conditions necessary for training an animal in a particular profession are created.
Particular attention is paid to increasing the level of performing skills, including quality characteristics when the pet performs the owner's commands, which are set during the practical use of the dog.
Teaching and raising a puppy
An informal, non-specific training of a puppy is often called "education" or "training." The upbringing and socialization of a pet is no less important than training, so this process must be taken with full responsibility. As a rule, immediately after the appearance in the house, the dog is taught to a nickname, a place for feeding and sleeping, a toilet. A little later, the four-legged pet is already able to master the simple first commands, and also learns to collar, leash and muzzle, without which the appearance of an animal
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We accustom to the toilet
Learning a puppy to meet his needs on the street is an important educational process that requires endurance and patience from the owner. However, an adult animal is much more difficult to discipline. Compliance with sanitary-hygienic rules by the pet makes the dog stay in the house comfortable, but during the first four months of life, puppies are physically unable to restrain all their natural desires, so scolding a four-legged pet at this age is simply pointless. In order to facilitate cleaning at the training stage, pharmacy disposable diapers should be used.
As they grow older, the dog walks about five to six times a day, after eating and sleeping, as well as after active games. It is not recommended to play with the pet for a walk until it satisfies all its natural needs, which will gradually help to form a stable habit to empty out only on the street. As veterinary practice shows, the causes of unhygienic behavior of an already accustomed dog can lie in diseases of the genitourinary or digestive systems.
For dogs of small decorative breeds, in addition to regular street walks, it will be very useful to master the skill of using a toilet tray. A puppy must be accustomed to such a device from the first days of appearing in an apartment. For males, it is advisable to purchase a model with a column. Choose a tray based on the estimated size of an adult pet. Filler for the tray can be used, but, as a rule, there is no obvious need to purchase it.
We train to a collar and a leash
The very first collar for a puppy should be light and flat, so that the pet can quickly get used to the presence of a foreign object on the neck. For some time, the animal will try to get rid of the collar, get nervous or even growl, therefore, at the first fitting, it is advisable to distract the puppy with any game or favorite treat.
It is interesting!After the animal gets used to the collar, you can begin to develop the ability to wear a leash.
You cannot accustom a puppy to a leash and a collar in crowded streets, as clutter, noise from passing cars and other distracting factors are added to the discomfort on the neck. Among other things, it is strictly forbidden to allow the puppy to be played on a leash during training. It is necessary to choose a leash for a four-legged pet in such a way that it is not too long or too short. “Roulette” type leashes are also very poorly suited for training.
There are several nuances, the observance of which allows you to easily and fairly quickly teach a puppy to wear a muzzle. Such a “dog accessory” is mandatory not only for regular walks of the dog in public places, but also necessary when going to the veterinarian. It is recommended to introduce the puppy to the muzzle at the age of five months, but it is advisable to start serious training in after the pet is seven months old.
Before putting a muzzle on a four-legged pet, it is necessary that the puppy properly sniffs the accessory and understands that it poses no danger. It is strictly forbidden to give a dog a nibble on the muzzle or play with it. In order for the animal to don the muzzle on its own, it is allowed to use the long-proven and well-proven method - some favorite treat is placed in the muzzle. A curious puppy often can not stand it and climbs to get a hidden treat in the face.
Fear of any “dog accessories” in adult dogs can be caused by association with physical punishment with a belt, prolonged stay in the so-called “chain keeping”, forced and too long wearing a tightening muzzle. A complete refusal of an animal to wear a muzzle is most often associated with the wrong choice of such an accessory or non-compliance with the rules of training.
Weaning off biting and nibbling things
Dog problematic behavior must be corrected. Often puppies gnaw in the house all in a row only experiencing the stress of breaking up with their master. In this case, the only way out of such an unpleasant situation is to instill in the dog the rules of behavior in the absence of the owner. With proper installation, the animal learns very quickly that after leaving the owner will definitely return.
It is interesting!At first, leaving the pet alone should be only for a few minutes, but gradually the time of absence should increase. At this time, the pet can be distracted from the desire to spoil things with safe toys.
Quite often, the youngest dogs and puppies try to attract the attention of the owner not only with their voice and grasping for clothes. The most persistent pets, not getting what they want, nibble things or bite. Getting rid of these behavioral abnormalities can be very difficult, therefore, if necessary, the owner of such a dog should seek professional help from experienced dog handlers. It should be remembered that it is necessary to correct the behavior of the animal as early as possible until stable negative habits are completely formed, which in the future can cause a lot of problems at home or while walking on the street.